City of Pensacola annexation referendum, 1988

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A referendum was held on November 8, 1988 concerning the annexation of two areas, identified as Annexation Area #1, and Annexation Area #2, into the City of Pensacola.

The areas were identified, and referenda provided for, by Ordinance #37-88 and Ordinance #38-88, which were both approved on September 22, 1988.

The referendum required approval of residents within the areas proposed to be annexed, as well as of residents in the existing City limits. Existing City residents approved the proposed annexations by an overwhelming margin; residents in Annexation Area #1 approved annexation by a slim majority; and residents of Annexation Area #2 rejected annexation.

Accordingly, Area #1 was annexed into the City of Pensacola effective November 10.

Annexation Area #1[edit]

Map of Annexation Area #1

Annexation Area #1 included the Cordova Mall area as well as areas northeast of the Airport Boulevard and 9th Avenue intersection.

Annexation Area #2[edit]

Map of Annexation Area #2

Annexation area #2 included areas around Woodchuck Avenue, Baywoods Drive, and Whisper Way.

Election results[edit]

Existing city residents[edit]

Regarding annexation of Area #1:

For annexation 13,662 82%
Against annexation 2,971 18%

Regarding annexation of Area #2:

For annexation 12,991 81%
Against annexation 3,066 19%

Residents of Area #1[edit]

Residents of Area #1 approved annexation by a slim majority:

For annexation 186 51%
Against annexation 178 49%

Residents of Area #2[edit]

Residents of Area #2 rejected annexation:

For annexation 102 22%
Against annexation 353 78%

Legal challenge[edit]

On November 14, Mr. Eugene Blanck, a resident elector of Precinct 64 in Annexation Area #1, filed an official protest against the election returns. Mr. Blanck alleged that some individuals who were not residents of Annexation Area #1 were permitted to vote on the annexation question, and that some who were residents were not permitted to vote. He further alleged that the City of Pensacola had failed to identify all electors residing in Annexation Area #1, and that said failure had "unlawfully deprived [some electors] of the means and opportunity to express a full, free, and open choice."[1]

Circuit Court Judge Nicholas Geeker ordered the election's canvassing board to investigate the allegations. The canvassing board, which consisted of County Judge George "Jim" Roark III, Escambia County Commission chairman Kenneth Kelson, and Supervisor of Elections Joe Oldmixon, performed a recount confirming the election results. They also clarified that it was the Supervisor of Elections, not the City of Pensacola, who had authority and responsibility for determining the eligibility of electors.

Blanck voluntarily dismissed his suit on December 13.


  1. Complaint for Declaratory Judgment, Blanck v. City of Pensacola et al., November 21, 1988.