Treaty of Pensacola

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The Treaty of Pensacola was a 1784 agreement between Spain and the Creek Nations. It was negotiated by Alexander McGillivray with Spanish officials Arturo O'Neill and Martin Navarro (of West Florida) and Estevan Miró (of Louisiana) on May 31 and June 1, 1784.

Excerpts from the treaty[1][edit]

Articles of Agreement, trade, and Peace stipulated & Granted by the Spanish Nation with the Creek Nations, in the Congress held with that View in the town of Pensacola, Metropolis of West Florida, the thirty-first day of May, and the first of June 1784.…

Article 1. We the above mentioned Chiefs of the Creek nation, in our names, and in the name of the other Chiefs, Captains, Warriors and other individuals of the Nation, of what ever quality, Sex, or Condition they may be, swear by the Supreme Almighty God, Creator of Heaven and Earth, to whom all things are subjected, to Keep and Maintain an Inviolable Peace and fidelity, with his Most Catholick Majesty his provinces, Subjects, and vassals.…

Article 2. To correspond on the part of his Most Catholick Majesty to the Confidence merited by the worthy and honorable Chiefs of the Creek and other Nations, who are on the land Conquered by the arms of his Majesty; We the above mentioned Stephen Miro Governor of the Province of Louisiana, Arthur O'Neill Governor of Pensacola in the Province of West Florida; and Martin Navarro Intendent General of the same, offer in the name of the King to procure for the Contracting Nation, a permanent and unalterable commerce, unless the inevitable event of a War Should impid the exact accomplishment of this offer, at the most equitable prices, for which purpose Tariffs shall be formed by the Consent of both parties assembled in the present Congress, upon which the mutual treaty shall be established, and which ought to be inviolably observed by the Individuals of both the Contracting Parties, with the utmost Scrupulous Exactness.

Art. 3. In order more and more to encourage the Commerce, and agriculture, the Creek Nations will establish a General Peace with the Chickasaws, Chactaws, and other nations of the Continent.…

Art. 13. As the Generous mind of his Most Catholick Majesty is far from exacting lands from the Indians, to form settlements to the prejudice of the proprietor: from henceforward and from the perfect knowledge, We have of the paternal love he has for his beloved Nation, We offer in his royal name to secure and guarantee to them, those which they actually hold, according to the right by which they possess them, provided they are comprehended within the lines of the limits of his Majesty and our Sovereign and to prove how different his way of thinking is far from that of his Britannick Majesty, and to render his royal Clemency more efficacious, if ever by War, or any other Event they should be dispossessed of their Lands, by the Enemies of his Crown, We Will grant them others, Equivalent, which may be vacant, where they may establish themselves without requiring any other recompense, than their Continual fidelity.…


  1. John Walton Caughey. McGillivray of the Creeks. University of South Carolina Press, 2007.