Battle of Pensacola (1814)
`The Battle of Pensacola was one of the numerous battles fought as a result of the American Revolution. In 1763, the British had taken control of Pensacola due to the French and Indian War final negotiations, also known as The Treaty of Paris. The British Royal Navy feared attack for many years but did not face adversity until Spanish general, Don Bernardo de Galvez plotted his plan for the recapture of the city in 1780. Bernardo and his Spanish army along with Andrew Jackson and American volunteers fought together to successfully seize the five British forts in Pensacola: Fort Conde (Fort Charlotte), Royal Navy Redoubt, Fort George, Queen’s Redoubt, and Prince of Wales Redoubt). Unable to defend themselves, the British surrendered. On May 10, 1781, General John Campbell raised the white flag to the Spanish and American troops. Pensacola would remain in Spanish control for the next 40 years until American negotiations pushed the Spanish to renounce their control of the city in 1819.
The Battle of Pensacola is interesting in the fact itself that the there was an involvement of three different groups of peoples. The Americans, British, and Spanish were all contenders in this two-day battle. Pensacola was the Spanish capital of the western Florida and the British Spanish Pensacola Bay were in control of the town. Pensacola served as an important foothold on British power in West Florida. Andrew Jackson’s American forces intended to liberate the Spanish town from British grasps. The Americans had succeeded in freeing Pensacola from the British, which the Americans handed the town over to the Spanish, as instructed by, at the time, Secretary of State James Monroe. Amongst the three nationalities only a total of twenty-two dead/wounded casualties became the victims of the Battle of Pensacola.
Turnout of the Battle of Pensacola
On November 6, 1814, Andrew Jackson arrived at Pensacola with an army of 4,000 men. Jackson sent an American messenger to offer peace to the Spanish, but was shot at by the Fort San Miguel which was Fort George when the British built it in 1778 on Gage Hill. garrison. Andrew Jackson then sent a Spaniard messenger to demand the British evacuation of the forts. Mateo Manrique, the Spanish governor, denied this demand. The following day, Jackson ordered 3,000 troops to attack the city. The troops attacked from an eastern beachfront to avoid being shot at by the forts. The two armies met at the center of the city. A line of infantry was guarded by a Battery. Americans pushed and took over the battery. Manrique then offered a surrender if America would spare the town.The town was surrendered on November 7.
Conclusion and Legacy
The Battle of Pensacola was a very short lived battle. But the ending results for the Americans and Spanish was a plus for both of them. The Americans handing over the land was important to the Spanish because now the Spanish may seek to help the Americans in the future battles for handing over the land. It also benefits the Americans due to possible new allies or new land to possibly take over in some manner. Although there were some deaths during the battle the death toll was very little due to the overwhelming size of the American forces and the fact that the British surrendered. The only regret Jackson had from this battle was letting the British fleet escape because they could possibly head too Mobile for an attack and they also, somehow, destroyed Fort Barrancas.